Interesting Oyster Facts Citations

  1. Brusca, R. C. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA pp.736-737.
  2. Pigliucci, M. 2005. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: where are we going now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution20(9).
  3. Lu, J., Li, Q., Kong, L., Yu, H., and Zhang, X. 2011. Identifying the true oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) with mitochondrial phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding. Molecular Ecology Resources 11.
  4. Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL, deWaard JR 2003. Biological identifi- cations through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 270, 313–321.
  5. Banks, P., Berrigan, M., Choudhury, A., Craig, L., Diaz, D.,Kern, F., King, J., Marshall, M. Johnson, L., Steimle, F., Takacs, R., Wikfors, G. 2007. Status Review of the Eastern Oyster. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration technical memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-88.
  6. Allen, S. K., Downing, S. L. 1986. Performance of triploid Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Survival, growth, glycogen content, and sexual maturation in yearlings. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 102: 197-208
  7. USDA online biotechnology glossary (
  8. Debrosse, G.A. Origin of Rutgers Haskin CROSBreed and Haskin NEH disease resistant oyster lines. Fact sheet available at:
  9. Coon, S.L., Walch, M., Fitt, W.K., Weiner, R.M., and Bonar, D.B. 1990. Ammonia induces settlement behavior in oyster larvae. Biological Bulliten 179: 297- 303.
  10. Davis, H.C. and Calabrese, A. 1964. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on development of eggs and growth of larvae of M. mercinaria and C. virginica. NOAA Fishery Bulliten: 63 (3).
  11. Newell, R.I.E, Victor, K., Shaw, K. 2007. Comparitive vulnerability to predators, and induced defense responses, of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica and non native Crassostrea ariakensis oysters in Chesapeake Bay. Marine Biology 152: 449-460.
  12. Smith, J. W., Merriner, J.V. 1985. Food habits and feeding behavior of the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus, in lower Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries: 8(3) 305-310
  13. S. Allen personal communication, March 16, 2016.
  14. STAC (Chesapeake Bay Program Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee). 2013. Evaluation of the Use of Shellfish as a Method of Nutrient Reduction in the Chesapeake Bay. STAC Publ. #13-005, Edgewater, MD. 65 pp,
  15. Kellogg, M.L., A.R. Smyth, M.W. Luckenbach, R.H. Carmichael , B.L. Brown, , J.C. Cornwell, M.F. Piehler, M. S. Owens, D.J. Dalrymple, and C. B. Higgins. 2014a. Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 151: 156-168,